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Forms of tenzo grates of foil strain gauges
Foil strain gauges
      At foil strain gauges a pickoff is executed from foil in thick 3..6 .
      Thickness of foil strain gauges less than wire and 30..50 mkm makes. Basic advantages of foil strain gauges it is been possibility of formation of tenzo grates of any form and effective taking of heat in the process of measuring, that allows to get a greater output signal at identical deformations. Foil strain gauges are not sensitive to transversal deformations and assume execution beginning from a 0,3 mm and higher. 
      Tenzo grates of domestic foil strain gauges, as a rule, make from constantan foil (-- 03 96-67). Electromechanics properties of foil within the limits of one party as compared to constantan tenzowire differ in less constancy, and her heat treatment is less effective, therefore the working range of foil strain gauges does not exceed 3000..5000 mln^ -1, and temperature - 75..575 . Technology of making of foil tenzo grates is usually based on the use of actinic processes and in a most degree adjusted for a mass production. Foil strain gauges divide into next model modifications depending on the form of tenzo grates (fig. 1) : single-element rectangular for the linear measuring; two - or three element rectangular or rosette-like for measuring on areas with the flat tense state; special, used as tenzo transducers in membrane pickoffs; as chainlets of with a small base one - or two - element tenzo grates on general basis for measuring of deformations in the areas of concentration of tensions.
      Domestic industry mass-produces the foil strain gauges of next tipo sizes : single-element strain gauges of types of 2, 2, 1, -, - and - on pellicle basis with bases a 0,8..20 mm and by resistance 50.. ..400 Ohm; two - and three element strain gauges of types of 2 and on pellicle and paper basis with bases a from 5 to 15 mm and by resistance from 100 to 400 Ohm; rosette-like strain gauges of types of 2, 2, - and - on pellicle basis with bases a 0,8.. 10 mm and by resistance 50.. 140 Ohm; special for the membrane resilient elements of electromechanics transducers of types of 2 and 2 on pellicle basis by a diameter a 10..30 mm and by resistance 50..200 Ohm.

      The strain gauges of the transferred types are intended for measuring in the climatic range of temperatures (225..325 ), and also at enhanceable temperatures - (265..475 ). Recommended assembling glues: cyacrin for the strain gauges of 2, 2, -, -, -; glues of - 2 and - 9 for the strain gauges of 1 and 2; glue of - 4 for the strain gauges of -, -, -, - and -; varnish of - 931 for the strain gauges of 2, 2, 2, 2, 2 and 2.
      Maximum measureable deformation of 0,3%, creep at T= 295 To not over 0,5%.
Semiconductor strain gauges

Load cells, strain gauges, sensors
Foil strain gauges
Measuring stress vibrating string. Tensometer

Experimental sensors
- Strain gauges

Strain gauge
Glues, connective for editing of strain sensors
Attestation, calibration, check of strain sensors

Measurement of mechanical strain ( stress ) using a strain gage

The apparatus for measuring strain in static mode

Strain softening materials

Installation of hydro-protection resistor strain gages and strain gauge transducers


Thermistors, thermo-resistors
Semiconductor thermistors (sensors)
Platinum thermometers of resistance
Platinum and copper thermo resistances
Experimental sensors
- Thermistors
Thermo-resistors. Principle of work
Low-temperature (cryogenic) resistance thermometers (thermistors)
Transducers. Thermistors

Thermoelectric converters - generators of EMF
Thermoelectric cooling devices

Thermocouples - calibration (table)
-chromel - alumel
-platinum 30% rhodium platinum 60% rhodium
-chromel - constantan
-copper - constantan
-chromel - kopel 

Thermocouple TCA
Thermocouple TCC
Make of thermocouple
Alloys for thermocouples
Calibrating (table) of thermocouple
Calculation of the temperature on the value of the thermopower

Pyrometer Raytek
Pyrometer MiniTemp MT6
Imager Testo 890
Thermal imaging binoculars. Module M100

Phenomenon of Pel't'e

Electronic thermometer
Fig. 1. Forms of tenzo grates of foil strain gauges
and - single-element rectangular; - much element rectangular and rosette-like; in - membrane; a g is chainlets of small base grates