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деформация
деформация балки
For calibrating can be used and beams working on tension
which provide equal resistance to the bend
Attestation, calibration, check of strain gauges


For attestation, calibrating (determinations of calibration descriptions) of strain gauges use standard resilient elements (beams).  A beam, as a rule, has sizes (form) which provide equal resistance to the bend (fig. 1) or has a permanent section (fig. 2). A beam has an area (scratch area, on a picture shaded) which deformation is practically permanent within the limits of.
The size of deformation of surface of beam of equal resistance is determined on a formula:
Semiconductor strain gauges

Load cells, strain gauges, sensors
Foil strain gauges
Measuring stress vibrating string. Tensometer


Experimental sensors
- Strain gauges


Strain gauge
Glues, connective for editing of strain sensors
Attestation, calibration, check of strain sensors

Measurement of mechanical strain ( stress ) using a strain gage

The apparatus for measuring strain in static mode

Strain softening materials

Installation of hydro-protection resistor strain gages and strain gauge transducers


    


Thermistors, thermo-resistors
Semiconductor thermistors (sensors)
Platinum thermometers of resistance
Platinum and copper thermo resistances
Experimental sensors
- Thermistors
Thermometers
Thermo-resistors. Principle of work
Low-temperature (cryogenic) resistance thermometers (thermistors)
Transducers. Thermistors

Thermoelectricity
Thermoelectric converters - generators of EMF
Thermoelectric cooling devices
Thermoelectric

Thermocouples - calibration (table)
-chromel - alumel
-platinum 30% rhodium platinum 60% rhodium
-chromel - constantan
-copper - constantan
-chromel - kopel 

Thermocouple TCA
Thermocouple TCC
Make of thermocouple
Alloys for thermocouples
Calibrating (table) of thermocouple
Calculation of the temperature on the value of the thermopower

Pyrometers
Pyrometer Raytek
Pyrometer MiniTemp MT6
Imager Testo 890
Imagers
Thermal imaging binoculars. Module M100

Phenomenon of Pel't'e

Electronic thermometer
Where:  Р is a size of force of ladening (load), Н,
L is distance from the line of fastening of beam to the point of appendix of force,
Е is the module of resiliency of material of beam,
In is a width of beam in the place of fastening,
h is a thickness of beam,
Δh is distance from the surface of beam to the middle of thickness of strain gauges

The size of deformation of surface of beam of permanent section is expected through bending of f on a formula:
Where:
h is a thickness of beam,
Δh is distance from the surface of beam to the middle of thickness of strain gauges,
l is a base of device by means of which determine bending,
f is a sagitta on a base l

      For calibrating can be used and beams working on tension (fig. 3). In this case use the direct measuring of size of deformation in a scratch area. The lack of this method consists of complication of creation of stable axial ladening.
On a picture: 1 is a device for measuring of actual deformation

SENSORS OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS